Patterns of coal trade have been shifting in recent years as demand surges in Asian countries. Whereas Japan and the European Union (EU) have long been the world’s largest hard coal importers, China and India are now emerging as top importers. This surge has shifted the center of gravity in international coal trade to the Pacific Basin market, as estimates from the International Energy Agency (IEA) show. All projections are per the IEA’s New Policies Scenario, which assumes cautious implementation of policy commitments and plans announced by countries around the world. Note: All figures in million tonnes of coal equivalent.

Sonal Patel is POWER’s senior writer