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water hammer


Hydraulic Stability of Surge Tanks
hydropower-new-melones

When needed, surge tanks can provide a critical feature to the hydraulic design of hydropower projects. Principally, they can mitigate the overpressure effects of pressure transients or water hammer and…


Eliminate Transient Vacuums by Air Injection

Most operators know that air should be kept out of a heat exchanger’s cooling water supply line. Air can collect in pockets and block flow, increasing velocities, increasing system resistance,…


Covered Piping Systems O&M Programs for CCGT Plants

A great level of risk is present when operating pressurized systems. Over the years, industry safety concerns have increased with the occurence of catastrophic events. To help prevent further loss…